Jing-Jong Shyue, Ph.D.

105年下學期 表面分析技術

星期一 下午02:10-05:20 工綜215室

Office E-mail
Instructor 薛景中 中研院應科中心411B shyue at gate.sinica.edu.tw
TA 林祐賢 工粽236 yuhsienlin at ntu.edu.tw
Textbook T.L Alford, L.C. Feldman and J.W. Mayer, Fundamentals of Nanoscale Film Analysis, 2007, Springer
Website http://www.shyue.idv.tw/surface.html
Workload Homework 2 in total 20% each 40%
Mid-term exam 30% 30%
Final exam 30% 30%
Total* 100%
* If the final class average falls below 70%, a curved scale will be used, with the class average set at or near 78%.

Homework Policies:

Homework will be due in class at the second class meeting after it is assigned. Late homework will be subject to a penalty of 10% per day unless an extension has been arranged with the instructor prior to the due date. No late homework will be accepted after a solution set has been made available.
Homework must be legible, with questions answered in numerical order, and stapled if more than one page long. Please: no spiral-bound paper, or pages connected by folding the corners. Students may consult with one another on the homework, but what is handed in must be each student's original, individual work. Homework assignments (or portions thereof) from different students that appear to have been copied or that otherwise appear to be identical may be returned to all the submitters with zero credit.
The purpose of the homework is to illustrate, apply, and reinforce key topics, not to serve as dry runs for the tests.

Take-Home Exam:

The main difference between take-home exam and homework is that time is limited to ~5 h. The exam will be distributed via e-mail around 9 am and have to be submitted before the class starts on the same day. If there is any time conflict, please let us know beforehand and we can offset the time. In this case, the work can be submitted via e-mail (photos of the paper). Late submission will not be accepted. Identical to typical exams, the work has to be hand-written and hand-drawing. If there is any hint that the content is copied, zero credit will be given.


Lecture topics, readings, and dates of homework assignments are subject to change. Tests will cover the lecture content and the reading assignments.
Week Date Lecture Topic Slide Recording
1 2/26 Introduction: Surface 20180303
[PDF] [quicktime]
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Extra
2 3/5 Introduction: Vacuum System
3 3/12 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) 20180218
[PDF] [quicktime]
01 02 03
4 3/19 Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA, a.k.a. Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission, PIGE)
5 3/26 Focused Ion Beam (FIB); Field Emission Microscopy (FEM)/Field Ion Microscopy (FIM); Atom Probe 20180215
[PDF] [quicktime]
01 02 03 04 05
6 4/2 Holiday
7 4/9 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)
Homework #1 assigned
[PDF] [quicktime]
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13
8 4/16 Sputter Depth Profile
9 4/23 Secondary Neutral Mass Spectroscopy (SNMS)
Take-Home Exam; Homework #1 due
10 4/30 Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES): Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) and XPS 20180429
[PDF] [quicktime]
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
11 5/7 PES: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, a.k.a. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, ESCA)
12 5/14 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM): Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) 20180303
[PDF] [quicktime]
01 02 03 04 05 06 07
13 5/21 SPM: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and related techniques
14 5/28 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 20180215
[PDF] [quicktime]
01 02 03 04 05
15 6/4 SEM: Electron Backscatter Pattern (EBSP) and other techniques
16 6/11 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM)
Homework #2 assigned
[PDF] [quicktime]
01 02 03
17 6/18 Holiday
18 6/25 Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE); Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA)
Final Exam; Homework #2 due
[PDF] [quicktime]
01 02 03 04






Needs work

Surface analysis and surface science

Sensitivity as a function of spatial resolution

  • Sensitivity of different techniques
  • Strength of different techniques
  • Physical limitation
  • Number of atoms in solid

None of the above

Adsorption of molecules on surfaces

  • Collision rate
  • Thermal desorption techniques
  • Mean free path

None of the above

Vacuum system

  • Selection of vacuum components
  • Category of vacuum pumps
  • Vacuum gauges

None of the above

Surface crystallography

  • Ten 2D point groups
  • Seventeen 2D space groups
  • Five 2D lattices
  • Wood’s notation and matrix notation

None of the above

Ion Scattering Spectroscopy

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)

  • Kinematic factor
  • Central force scattering
  • Depth profiling
  • Quantitative analysis
  • Structural effect on channeling
  • Instrumentation
  • Scattering cross-section
  • Energy loss in solid
  • Channeling

None of the above

Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS)

  • Two-body scattering
  • Elastic recoil detection analysis

None of the above

Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA)

  • Depth profiling via resonance
  • Nomenclature

None of the above

Ion beam techniques

Focused Ion Beam (FIB)

  • Field evaporation
  • Parameter for LMIS
  • Ion-neutralization spectroscopy (INS)
  • Focus of ion beam
  • Liquid metal ion source (LMIS)
  • Imaging, deposition, etching operation

None of the above

Field Emission Microscopy (FEM)
Field Ion Microscopy (FIM)

  • Field emission
  • Field ionization
  • Application of Helium Ion Microscope (HIM)

None of the above

Atom Probe

  • Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP)
  • Sample preparation
  • Field evaporation

None of the above


  • Preferential sputtering
  • Artifacts in sputter depth-profile
  • Parameters that affect sputtering yield
  • Cluster-ion sputtering

None of the above

Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Secondary Neutral Mass Spectroscopy (SNMS)

  • Mass resolution
  • Effect of different primary beam
  • Quantification and matrix effect
  • Scanning Ion Microscope (SIM)
  • Static and dynamic mode
  • Instrumentation
  • Gating
  • Qualitative analysis
  • Isotope operation
  • Depth profile
  • Post-ionization

None of the above

Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES)

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

  • Pass energy and operation of analyzer
  • Spectral features in XPS
  • Final-state effect
  • Chemical shift
  • Quantitative analysis
  • Angle-resolved XPS
  • Photoelectric effect
  • Instrumentation
  • Definition of kinetic energy of photoelectron
  • Sampling depth
  • Position of Auger peak
  • Qualitative analysis
  • Depth profile

None of the above

Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS)

  • Angle-resolved UPS
  • Valance band spectrum
  • Angle-integrated UPS
  • Work function determination

None of the above

Inverted Photoelectron Spectroscopy (iPES)

  • Conduction band spectrum
  • Difference from PES

None of the above

Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

  • Constant-current mode
  • Constant-height mode
  • Tunneling
  • Instrumentation
  • Imaging of electron density

None of the above

Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS)

  • I(V) mode
  • I(z) mode
  • Polarity at tip

None of the above

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

  • Static vs. dynamic
  • Contact vs. non-contact
  • Force curve
  • Tapping operation
  • Lift operation
  • Instrumentation
  • Constant height vs constant force
  • Change in phase and amplitude
  • Force Modulation Microscopy (FMM)

None of the above

Various modes of AFM

  • Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM)
  • Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM)
  • Scanning Electrical Potential Microscopy (SEPM)
  • Electric Force Microscopy (EFM)
  • Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM)
  • Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM)
  • Lithography

None of the above

Instrumentation and operation considerations

  • Feedback control
  • Effect of probe
  • Artifact of piezo scanner

None of the above

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

General SEM

  • Magnification and raster size
  • Instrumentation
  • Resolution limitation
  • Operation modes for objective lens
  • Signal generation
  • Depth of focus
  • Resolution vs, current
  • Kinetic energy of electrons

None of the above

SE and BSE imaging

  • Yield of SE and BSE
  • Low-vacuum and environmental SEM
  • Effect of instrumental parameters on the image
  • Signal processing
  • Classification of SE
  • Contrast in SE and BSE imaging
  • Operation of detectors

None of the above

Advanced operation

  • Electron backscatter diffraction
  • Channeling pattern
  • EBIC
  • CL

None of the above

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM)

  • Two-electron de-excitation
  • Coster-Kronig transition
  • Operation mode of energy analyzer
  • Quantitative analysis
  • Nomenclature
  • Differential analysis
  • Chemical shift
  • Instrumentation
  • Charge consideration
  • Qualitative analysis
  • Schemes of depth-profile

None of the above

Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)


  • Inner-shell ionization by electron or high-energy particle
  • X-ray fluorescence yield
  • Interaction volume (lateral and depth distribution)
  • Effect of beam energy
  • Quantitative analysis (ZAF correction)
  • Characteristic x-ray and bremsstrahlung
  • Selection rule of x-ray generation
  • Qualitative analysis
  • Accuracy of standard-less quantification
  • X-ray imaging

None of the above

X-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy

  • Selecting crystals for XWDS
  • Fully focused x-ray spectrometer
  • Maximizing signal intensity

None of the above

X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy

  • Principle of Si(Li) and SDD
  • Processing time and dead time ratio
  • Principle of pulse processing
  • Role of collimater
  • Detection solid angle
  • Energy resolution of XEDS
  • Artifacts in XEDS

None of the above